-- Pain is a common symptom of MS ( >50% ).
-- Ataxia in MS manifests as = Cerebellar tremors.
Speech in MS = Scanning speech.
-- Bladder dysfunction seen in >90% of MS.
-- Constipation seen in >30% of MS cases.
-- MC reason for work-related disability in MS = fatigue
-- Facial weakness in MS, resembling Bell's palsy, is d/t = lesion in Pons
-- But ipsilateral taste sensation preserved. (POINT OF DIFFERENCE from Bell's palsy)
-- Uhthoff's symptom = U/L visual blurring occurs hot shower / exercise.
-- cause of Uhthoff's symptom in MS = Transient conduction block.
-- Lhermitte's symptom = electric shock-like sensation typically induced by flexion of neck, radiating down the back into legs.
-- Lhermitte's symptom is also seen in = Cervical spondylosis.
-- Facial Myokymia = persistent rapid flickering contractions of facial muscles (mainly orbicularis oculi) or contraction that slowly spreads across the face.
-- Autoimmune, more in Females.
-- Natural course of MS is = Relapsing Remitting.
-- Increased susceptibility linked to HLA DR2 locus.
(Goodpasteur syndrome = also HLA DR2,
Rheumatoid Arthritis = HLA DR4)
My Mnemonic : Read DR as Doctors.
So 2 Good Docs can treat MS. 4 Docs are required to treat RA.
-- Virus infection asso. with MS = EBV
-- CD4 TH1 & TH17 cells initiate the disease by = INF-Y secretion & leucocyte recruitment resepctively.
-- "Dawson's fingers" in MRI is a sign of = MS (see the fig. below)
-- Frequency of relapses in RRMS Rx = IFN-beta or glatiramer
-- Spasticity Rx = Baclofen/Tizanidine
-- To improve walking Rx = Dalfampridine
-- To improve fatigue Rx = Modafinil